济州

济州的诞生 – 雪门台婆婆

 

 

这个世上个子最高力气最大的女人,雪门台婆婆

很久很久以前,在韩半岛南边的茫茫大海里,住着一位叫做雪门台婆婆的人,她的个子特别高,力气也巨大无比。要说她的个子到底有多高呢,她的头能碰到天上的云,而且就算站在最深的海里,水面也不过是到她的膝盖而已。

雪门台婆婆决定在空无一物的海上建一个小岛。她以巨大的步伐走到陆地上,用裙子兜起重重的泥土和石块,抛洒在海面上,泥土和石块堆积在一起,就这样,济州岛诞生了。

虽然岛屿已经建成,但是雪门台婆婆总觉得少点什么,于是她开始在岛的正中间造一座高山。有了山的话,看上去就漂亮了,而且累了的时候可以当椅子坐,睡觉的时候也可以当做枕头。她又开始忙碌起来,用裙子装起泥土和石头在岛的中间整齐地堆砌。因为一直运送很重的泥土和石块,婆婆的裙子破了些小洞,一些泥土砂石从破洞中掉了出去。掉在地上的360多个泥块就变成了济州岛的火山丘。

婆婆来来往往不断地堆砌着,直到裙子都破了,终于,汉拿山在岛屿的正中间诞生了。雪门台婆婆累得往山上一坐,却又突然跳了起来,原来是山峰太尖了刺到了她的屁股。她把尖尖的山峰用手捏起来使劲儿扔了出去。于是汉拿山的山顶上出现了一个凹进去的水坑,这便是白鹿潭了。那块被扔出去的山峰掉在了济州岛的南侧,便成了山房山(산방산)。

雪门台婆婆对自己造的岛十分满意。她枕着白鹿潭入睡,坐在汉拿山上哼着歌。坐在汉拿山上用太平洋的海水洗衣服时,洗衣板就是济州岛东边的牛岛(우도),装衣服的篮子就是城山日出峰(성산일출봉)。

但是雪门台婆婆还有一个苦恼,因为身体太过庞大,没有适合的内衣可以穿,婆婆总是觉得很害羞,于是她拜托在济州岛生活的人用100捆明紬(명주) (一捆明紬相当于现在长1.6km,宽32cm)做成桥,好去陆地上帮她做一套漂亮的内衣。

济州岛民欣然答应了,开始七手八脚地准备起来。但是收了又收最后只攒了99捆。雪门台婆婆想要的内衣没有做成。所以济州和陆地永远分开了。

虽然没能做成内衣,但雪门台婆婆还是很为自己的身高而自豪的。大家都说她是世上最高,力气最大的女人,听了以后她特别开心。有一天雪门台婆婆偷听到人们谈论着济州市龙潭洞的龙渊(용연)里的水非常深,为了表现自己的身高,她神气十足地把脚放了进去,龙渊的水不过是没过了她的脚面而已。得意洋洋的雪门台婆婆又去了传闻中很深的荷塘和湖水,把脚放进去比深度。每每这时,人们就会称赞她的高个子,雪门台婆婆听着咯咯地笑了起来。

这时,突然有一个人出来说,在济州有一个叫Muljangori(물장오리)的荷塘,比雪门台婆婆的个子还要深。 被伤害了自尊心的雪门台婆婆立刻去了Muljangori 扑通一声跳了进去。可是不可思议的事情发生了,雪门台婆婆的身体渐渐被淹没在了荷塘中。原来Muljangori是一个没有底,没有尽头的荷塘。

济州人一直在等着雪门台婆婆重新出现,一直在想念着她。可是从那以后没有人再见到过她。雪门台婆婆虽然就那样消失了,但她留下来的土地,岛屿,高山和小丘都成为了一种祝福,让济州变得富饶,人们变得幸福。

 


 

济州的母亲,雪门台婆婆

雪门台婆婆的传说是从很久以前就开始口头相传的济州岛诞生的故事。虽然根据地域不同故事内容稍有变化,但是雪门台婆婆是玉皇大帝的三女儿,而且她是突然从地里冒出来的,这两个故事一直是一致的。同时,还有多种有关雪门台婆婆之死的传说。有的说是她为了炫耀自己的身高陷入深深的荷塘中消失了,还有说是为了喂饱饥肠辘辘的五百名儿子,在熬粥的时候掉进巨大的锅里死了。但是雪门台婆婆的传说都是以个子高的奶奶创造了济州的故事为基础。所以,直到现在对于济州人来说雪门台婆婆犹如济州之母,同时被济州人视为女神。

 


 

对济州岛神秘自然的有趣想象

雪门台婆婆的故事是济州先祖们对济州岛神秘而美丽自然的创造性想象的产物,充满了济州先祖们的才华。那么事实上济州岛是怎么出现的呢?

济州岛是距现在约180万年前的第五大火山爆发而诞生的岛。整个岛称得上是“火山博物馆”,拥有值得骄傲的多样而独特火山地形的济州岛地面宽广,有360余个山丘纵横。地下约有160余个熔岩洞窟分布在济州岛全境。在一个小岛上有如此多的山丘和洞窟在世界范围内实属罕见。2002年被指定为生物圈保存区,2007年载入世界自然遗产,2010年认证为世界地质公园。获得这UNESCO3冠王的同时,它的价值也在世界上得到了认可。

如果真的想仔细了解济州岛诞生过程的话,最好去济州世界自然遗产中心看看。通过济州世界自然遗产中心里多样的多媒体资料和4D影像馆能够体验到济州自然的神秘。

 

济州世界自然遗产中心 제주세계자연유산센터

 

交通在济州长途汽车站乘坐710,720路巴士(繁荣路路线<번영로 노선>)于拒文岳入口(거문오름입구)站下车,在十字路口沿着济州世界自然遗产中心的指示牌步行10分钟(总需时间约50分钟)

地址济州特别自治道济州市朝天邑善桥路569-36(제주특별자치도 제주시 조천읍 선교로 569-36)

电话064-710-6657 (韩/中/英)

营业时间09:00~18:00 *每月第一个周二,春节,中秋节休息

门票成人3,000韩元,青少年&儿童 2,000韩元

主页wnhcenter.jeju.go.kr (中)

 


 

雪门台婆婆传说里出现的地点

汉拿山和白鹿潭 한라산과 백록담

 

汉拿山是济州中部耸立的山,其海拔1,950m,是韩国最高的山。民间流传着汉拿山是由雪门台婆婆将泥土和石头堆砌之后创造而成的传说。汉拿山的顶峰存在一个称为白鹿潭的火口湖。雪门台婆婆跨坐于汉拿山上,看不惯尖尖的山峰便用手折断后形成的水坑。

主页参考VisitKorea (中)

 

山房山 산방산

 

济州南部安德面平原地带中耸立的海拔507m的钟型火山体。传说是雪门台婆婆扔下尖尖的山峰后掉在地上形成的。

主页参考VisitKorea (中)

 

月郎峰 다랑쉬오름

 

济州360余个山峰之一,山峰上的火山口犹如月亮一般,所以称之为月郎峰。据传说月郎峰又大又宽的火山口是由雪门台婆婆的拳头砸成的。

主页参考VisitKorea (中)

 

城山日出峰和牛岛 성산일출봉과 우도

 

城山日出峰是约5000年前在济州东部海底水中爆发的火山体。根据雪门台婆婆的传说,城山日出峰是雪门台婆婆洗衣服时泡过要洗衣服的石盆。

还有,城山日出峰附近有一座岛,因其状如卧牛,因此得“牛岛”之名。传说中称,雪门台婆婆用牛岛当搓衣板来洗衣服。

主页: 城山日出峰 – 参考VisitKorea (中)  牛岛 – 参考VisitKorea (中)

 


 

想要了解更多雪门台婆婆的故事

要是去济州以石头为主题的济州石头文化公园的话,可以欣赏到以雪门台婆婆传说为素材的雕塑作品。了解传说的话,可以观赏有趣的作品,有以传说中雪门台婆婆陷落死亡的Muljangori为主题制作的直径40m,周长125m的天空荷塘和雪门台婆婆的儿子们五百将军石像等。除此之外,还有能够仔细了解济州石头文化的多样的雕塑作品和济州石头博物馆等值得观赏。

济州石头文化公园每年5月举行传播雪门台婆婆传说的意义和价值的“雪门台婆婆祭”。活动中包括为雪门台婆婆呈上济州传统礼仪,还有国际冥想音乐节、济州传统饮食体验等多种文化活动。

 

济州石头文化公园 제주돌문화공원

 

交通在济州长途汽车站乘坐730路(南朝路方向<남조로행>)巴士。在济州石头文化公园(제주돌문화공원)站下车。(总需时间约40分钟)

地址济州特别自治道济州市朝天邑南朝路2023(제주특별자치도 제주시 조천읍 남조로 2023)

电话064-710-7731~3 (韩)

营业时间09:00~18:00 *每月第一周周一休息

门票成人5,000韩元 青少年 3,500韩元,12岁以下及65岁以上免费

主页www.jejustonepark.com (韩/中/英/日)

 


 

编辑/金钟赫(김종혁)  插图/ OJAHWA

 

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